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Cabbage Worms

We are first-time gardeners and have planted Brussels sprouts and green and red cabbage that we are trying to grow organically. There are black egg sacs and small green worms eating the leaves. Is there an organic product we can use on the cabbage?

Egg sacs can be washed off with a hose.

There are several organic methods you can use to deter cabbage worms. Lightweight polypropylene row covers, placed over a row of plants and supported by hoops, will block wind and insects while permitting light, air and rain to reach the plants. Hold down the row covers with soil, stones or bricks.

Another organic method uses pots of mint growing between cabbage plants. The mint odor is said to deter cabbage moths. Don’t let the mint take root, however; it will take over your garden. Rotenone dust is considered organic, as it leaves no poisonous residue on plants. The use of hot pepper spray is an irritant to insects and worms, but also to your skin and eyes. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a specific biological control that is fatal to cabbage worms if ingested. Note that it can be harmful to certain butterfly larvae.


Gardening Trends

What are some trends in gardening you see becoming more prevalent in the next few years?

I believe choosing plants for butterflies, bees and other pollinators will be an important trend in 2015 as folks realize the important role they play in our environment. Growing fruits and vegetables will also remain an important focus of gardeners, especially those that can be grown in containers and small spaces. Low-maintenance plants, preferred by both aging and beginning gardeners, will be another trend to watch in 2015.


Mandevilla

I brought my mandevilla plant into the house to overwinter. How best can I keep it? Will it flower? Can I root pieces of it?

Mandevilla is a tropical vine requiring high light. Keep it in the sunniest part of your home. It will not flower over winter because the light intensities will not be great enough to bring on flowers and many of the leaves will fall off. It is best to keep it in a semi-dormant stage by trimming it back, withholding fertilizer and allowing it to dry out between waterings. Mandevilla is prone to aphids, white fly and mealy bugs, but don’t treat the plant preventively with an insecticide. It doesn’t work, and it also adds unnecessary chemicals to your indoor air. Treat a bug problem only if one develops. One preventive measure that does work is to give your houseplants a periodic shower or spritz them with a hand spray in the kitchen sink.

When the days are longer in early spring, begin feeding it with a 20-20-20 plant food to encourage new growth and then switch to a 20-30-20 formula. “It’s hard to propagate in winter, but in spring when your plant gets a burst of new growth, you can try to root cuttings,Ôø‡Ôø‡Ôø‡ advised Susan Izenstark, tropical specialist at Jamaican Gardens, Morton Grove.


Perennial Pinchback

Is there an overall rule about when to pinch back my leggy plants?

“The reason plants are pinched back is to obtain compact and bushier growth. This is generally done three times during a growing season, or you can apply the 6 nodes rule,” says Jennifer Brennan, horticulturist, Chalet Nursery, Wilmette.

After 6 weeks of growth, trim back half of the growth, or wait until you see 6 nodes on the plant stem to trim back to get more branching. For plants that respond, such as chrysanthemums, use the 6 node criterion.


Orchids

What causes black spots on my orchid leaves?

There are a number of causes for black spots, depending on the type of orchid.

“In some varieties, like Oncidium ‘Cherry Baby’, the small black spots through the leaf are normal,” says Liese Butler, owner, Oak Hill
Gardens, Dundee.

Black spots on the top of the leaf could be sunburn, caused when sunlight scalds a drop of water that has been left on a leaf. Newer growth of Cattleya orchids can normally have a purplish spot. A black mushy spot and a black stem indicate rot.


Types of Fruit Trees

I am going to be planting five dwarf fruit trees; two ‘Bartlett’ pears, one ‘Cresthaven’ peach, and two ‘Honeycrisp’ apples. Could you give me some feedback on them?

If you buy young container fruit trees, plant them very early in the spring to lessen transplanting shock (as soon as the soil can be worked and before the buds break). Plant the tree at the level it was in the pot, adding a layer of top mulch.

“Wrap the trunk in paper or plastic tree wrap to prevent deer and rabbit damage. Protect the trunk from voles with fine wire mesh at the base,” says Tim Norris, president of Spring Bluff nursery, Sugar Grove.

‘Bartlett’ pear is subject to fire blight and also needs a pollinator for good fruit production. ‘Patten’ and ‘Parker’ are two pear cultivars Norris recommends. Two different cultivars will give you better cross-pollination.

‘Honeycrisp’ apples are an excellent choice for this area. They grow up to 20 feet tall on semi-dwarf root stock. They can be pollinated by any member of the Malus family, including a nearby flowering crab tree.

‘Cresthaven’ peach, while hardy here, may not bear fruit, depending on how cold the winters are. When the temperature goes down to zero, ‘Cresthaven’ peach loses all its flower buds. Norris suggests growing ‘Reliance’ peach instead. It needs a long growing season. Last spring (2008) was a cool one and peaches did not bear much fruit. Peaches are not long-lived trees. By the time the tree is bearing fruit, you will need to start growing another tree.


Peonies

I have some peonies that I want to transplant but cannot plant them in their permanent place until next spring when our new house will be built. Can I dig them now and transplant them again next spring?

The correct time for transplanting herbaceous peonies is late September into October. Cut back the foliage when you dig them up. Each clump you move should have at least three eyes, or growth buds, and thick tuberous roots. Dig a hole deep enough to cover the eyes with two inches of soil when you transplant. If planted too deeply, they will not bloom.

Transplant the peony into its temporary place, or else move it into a container and dig the container into a shady area, not in full sun. Be careful about watering the container plant; try to keep it evenly moist. Next spring, move the peony into its permanent location, suggests David Leider, perennial grower at Klehm Plants, Barrington.

“Replanting in spring disrupts the roots and will halt blooming for one year. Peonies are pretty strong plants and very hardy. They will recover,” says Charlotte Thayer, assistant to the owner at The Natural Garden, St. Charles.


Frost

I have a Japanese maple that was hit by frost. Some of the leaves are curled and brown. Will they fall off and new leaves grow? Is there anything I can do to help the tree? What is the best method to prevent this from ever happening again?

Your tree will recover from the frost damage. Adventitious (secondary) buds at the nodes will send out new leaves. Make sure that your tree is sited correctly in a sheltered location and protected from harsh winds, advises Susan Eyre, Rich’s Foxwillow Pines Nursery, Woodstock. If your tree is fully leafed out and a hard frost is predicted, you could drape your tree with plastic, a tarp or some other covering overnight.


Heptacodium

Late last year most of the leaves on my year-old seven-son tree (Heptacodium) turned brown, starting at the tips. It had some new growth on the tips and buds. I used a tree ring soaker hose every two weeks.

“I suspect that your watering every two weeks was not sufficient and that your tree was going into early dormancy,” says Chicagoland Gardening editor Carolyn Ulrich. “It was very dry late in the growing season and a lot of trees looked stressed.”

A rule of thumb for watering is one inch per week. Heptacodiums grow best in moist soil. You probably needed to increase the amount of time the water was on the plant and also water more frequently. Soaker hoses can run for hours.

If you want to figure out how much water your tree is receiving, use a sprinkler, if you have one, and run it on your tree until a tuna fish can has an inch of water in it, and then stop. Do this weekly, unless it rains.


Coneflowers

I thought that purple coneflowers were insect proof, but now I see some aphids at the bud and tiny flies. What is wrong?

Purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea) is a common native perennial that grows best in sandy or well-draining soil and full sun. If you are not giving your plant these growing conditions, certain insects can attack your plants.

Aphids are sometimes visible on buds, and as sucking insects they cause stunted and deformed leaves. Spider mites are tiny insects that often multiply in hot, dry conditions. Spider mites feed on sap and cause yellowish leaves. Thrips are barely visible, tiny insects causing bud malformation.


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questions

I have two 20-year-old pine trees whose needles are turning brown on the west side of the plants. On the east side I have a compost pile.

I live in the St. Charles region and my soil is mostly clay. What is causing the browning? Should I get rid of the compost? How do I correct the damage?

Can I grow asparagus from seed? I saved the little red berries from my plants.

Miniature gardening is the rage. What enchanting miniature plants work well in a shaded area?