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Miniature Gardening

Miniature gardening is the rage. What enchanting miniature plants work well in a shaded area?

T Biernacki
Many miniature plants grow in shade. Some unusual ones are the 6-inch tall Solomon’s seal (Polygonatum humile ‘Tom Thumb’), the 2-inch tall Ajuga reptans ‘Planet Zork’ and two cultivars of the very slow-growing conifer Cryptomeria japonica: ‘Koshyi’ and ‘Tenjan’. Or look for two European gingers, Asarum forlesii ‘Mercury’ and Asarum takaoi ‘Roundabout’, which are about 3 inches tall. Also: the maidenhair fern (Adiantum venustum), mosses and miniature hostas

M Samios
The best and most obvious answer is miniature and small hostas. From the ever-expanding “mouse” series with ‘Holy Mouse Ears’, ‘Mighty Mouse’ and ‘Giantland Sunny Mouse’ to newbies such as ‘Mini Skirt’, ‘Ladybug’, ‘Baby Booties’ and ‘Little Starlet’… perfection! Add some grass-like carex such as ‘Beatlemania’ for texture, miniature Solomon’s seal (Polygonatum humile) and dwarf heucheras from the Little Cute series, and your garden fairies will be in heaven.

C Bornmann
If you’re planting in the ground, these low-growing perennials will add interest and texture to your garden: Irish and Scotch moss (Sagina sublata and S. subulata ‘Aurea’ – best in part shade), brass buttons (Leptinella squalida) and miniature hostas. Add color with annuals such as polka dot plants (Hypoestes), ‘Strawberry Drop’ coleus and torenia. It’s important to add perennials and annuals into your garden for a longer season of color.


What are your three favorite “all-but-forgotten” perennials that every garden should include? Why do you like them?

What are your three favorite “all-but-forgotten” perennials that every garden should include? Why do you like them?

Jan Sorensen, Native Plant Specialst, Wasco Nursery & Garden Center, St. Charles

Anemone tomentosa ‘Robustissima’ is a late season plant for sun to part shade and a wide range of soils. Deer and rabbit resistant with few pests or diseases. The fuzzy texture and gray-green leaves of Stachys byzantina ‘Helene von Stein’ complement other sun plants wonderfully. Leaves mask brown lower foliage of asters. The 3 to 5-foot tall Baptista australis and PRAIRIEBLUES cultivars offer gorgeous blue and purple flowers and they attract butterflies. They like full to part shade and tolerate poor soils.

Elizabeth Hoffman, owner, West End Florist and Garden Center, Evanston.

My three favorite forgotten perennials are plumbago, bergenia and Stokes’ aster. Plumbago (Ceratostigma plumbaginoides) is a ground cover with sky blue flowers in fall and red leaves. Intersperse it with spring bulbs for three seasons of interest. Bergenia (Bergenia cordifolia) is versatile, handling conditions from moist sunny areas to dry shade. It is rabbit and deer resistant. When you rub your two fingers on either side of the leaf you can make it squeak (hence another common name: pig squeak). The long-blooming and easy-care Stokes’ aster (Stokesia laevis) is fairly pest and disease free. Rabbits tend not to eat it, and it attracts butterflies.

Rich Massat, co-owner,The Growing Place, Naperville and Aurora

Three favorites of ours are pasque flower (Pulsatilla vulgaris), Laddie peony (Paeonia peregrina) and balloon flower (Platycodon grandiflorus). Pasque flower blooms very early in spring with extremely soft leaves and silvery green buds. Red, white or purple flowers; purple seems to have more vigor. The ferny-leaved Laddie peony also blooms very early with red flowers. It’s a hybrid of Paeonia peregrina and P. tenuifolia. Balloon flower is named for blue, pink or white flowers that start out looking like a balloon and open to look like a star. They have a long blooming period in summer.


Nitrogen Problem

I applied commercial compost and hardwood mulch to an area where I am establishing a small garden. I did a few soil tests on the area and the results indicated the nitrogen was depleted. I intend to spread a bag of dried blood to rectify this problem When is the best time to apply the dried blood?

Landscape professionals are usually skeptical about results from home soil tests. They don’t always produce accurate results unless you take a large soil sample from many parts of your yard.

“Take your home soil test results with a grain of salt,” advises Tony Fulmer, manager, Chalet Nursery, Wilmette. He cautions not to become overly excited by the results. “Hard-wood mulch is used by landscapers all over the area, and I don’t see a problem with it causing nitrogen depletion.”

Apply the dried blood now. The 12% insoluble nitrogen starts working when soil temperatures rise.


Cold Frames

With all the emphasis on growing fresh vegetables, I think I should use a cold frame but I am not sure what to do or how to go about it. Any ideas?

Cold frames are simply four walls with a window or plastic sheet on top. They range from simply placing four bales of straw in a square with an old window atop them to more deluxe mini-greenhouses with aluminum frames, plastic panels and automatic vents using solar energy to open and close them automatically.

Before building a cold frame, study garden supply and greenhouse catalogs to determine your needs and how fancy you want your cold frame to be. Do you prefer a permanent installation or an easily disassembled frame?

A basic plan for building a cold frame is taught by Chicago Botanic Garden’s senior horticulturist Heather Sherwood. Create four walls from plywood or bricks. Add a transparent lid (plastic sheeting or an old window) for light to enter. Place the lid on an angle. Place the frame against a building, facing south. Make sure there is good drainage. Open the frame when it gets above 60 degrees. Rabbits don’t usually get into the box but chipmunks may squeeze in.

Cold frames are used for extending the growing season, starting plants early, for storing bonsai or protecting semi-hardy plants over winter. The soil in the frame depends on how you will use it. The frame can be set on existing soil when you are storing plants, or fill it with straw to protect bonsai. Locate it conveniently against the house near a back door for easy access, especially if you envision running out to cut some salad greens when snow is on the ground.

Use a cold frame to get a head start on the gardening season. In early spring, start flats of lettuce, radishes, parsley, pansies and other cool-weather plants in the house, and place them in the cold frame in March, depending on the weather. If you plan on planting directly into the cold frame, fill it with a seed starting soil mix and an inch of compost worked into the top 3 inches of the soil. This will help keep the soil loose and aid moisture retention. The plants will be small in the cold frame and can be grown close together. Also use the cold frame to harden off house-grown seedlings.
Don’t forget to check on your plants regularly because winter sun is strong and plants dry up easily. Use it for a head start on the gardening season.


Rose Rosette Disease (RRD)

What is rose rosette disease? I lost two antique roses and removed a hedge of multiflora roses that were supposed to be undesirable. How bad is it?

Rose rosette disease is a plant killer of unknown origin and no known cure. It is known to plant pathologists, but unknown to most rose gardeners in this area.

The disease is believed to be caused by a virus or virus-like pathogen that has been spreading through much of the wild rose population in the Midwest, probably transmitted by a mite introduced to the U. S. to eradicate multiflora roses. It is lethal to the wild multiflora rose and potentially lethal to many rose species and cultivars.

Symptoms of rose rosette disease are highly variable, depending on the species or cultivar. Some of the more recognizable symptoms include rapid elongation of new shoots forming witches brooms, or clustering of small branches with distorted leaves of conspicuous red pigmentation and distorted flowers.

David Robson, Springfield, extension educator, horticulture with the University of Illinois, reports that it is all over our area. Mike Geimer, owner of Geimer Greenhouse, Long Grove, reports coming across RRD in a Long Grove garden. One plant in a bed of Flower Carpet roses caught his eye because of its uncharacteristic red clumping stems. He looked up the symptoms on the internet, identified it as RRD and advised immediate removal of the plant. Also important, warns Geimer: “Always sterilize pruning shears.”

Kathy Hallgren, Sycamore, is worried about the future of old roses. Two summers ago she noticed some peculiarly rampant irregular, hyper-thorny pink growth with irregular leaves on an antique Alba rose.

After researching the symptoms, Hallgren determined the irregularities were from RRD. “I dug out the plant and burned it. Once I learned that multiflora roses could be the culprit, I removed them even though they were healthy. This summer I saw it on one of my ‘William Baffin’ roses so cut it down and burned it. This disease means business,” says Hallgren.

No effective control is available for existing rose rosette disease. All cultivated roses are potentially susceptible. Be on the lookout for it. Early detection is the key to effective cultural control. If the disease is recognized early and the rose is removed, it is possible to save other roses in the garden and hopefully curb the spread of RRD.


Cabbage Worms

We are first-time gardeners and have planted Brussels sprouts and green and red cabbage that we are trying to grow organically. There are black egg sacs and small green worms eating the leaves. Is there an organic product we can use on the cabbage?

Egg sacs can be washed off with a hose.

There are several organic methods you can use to deter cabbage worms. Lightweight polypropylene row covers, placed over a row of plants and supported by hoops, will block wind and insects while permitting light, air and rain to reach the plants. Hold down the row covers with soil, stones or bricks.

Another organic method uses pots of mint growing between cabbage plants. The mint odor is said to deter cabbage moths. Don’t let the mint take root, however; it will take over your garden. Rotenone dust is considered organic, as it leaves no poisonous residue on plants. The use of hot pepper spray is an irritant to insects and worms, but also to your skin and eyes. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a specific biological control that is fatal to cabbage worms if ingested. Note that it can be harmful to certain butterfly larvae.


Peonies

I have some peonies that I want to transplant but cannot plant them in their permanent place until next spring when our new house will be built. Can I dig them now and transplant them again next spring?

The correct time for transplanting herbaceous peonies is late September into October. Cut back the foliage when you dig them up. Each clump you move should have at least three eyes, or growth buds, and thick tuberous roots. Dig a hole deep enough to cover the eyes with two inches of soil when you transplant. If planted too deeply, they will not bloom.

Transplant the peony into its temporary place, or else move it into a container and dig the container into a shady area, not in full sun. Be careful about watering the container plant; try to keep it evenly moist. Next spring, move the peony into its permanent location, suggests David Leider, perennial grower at Klehm Plants, Barrington.

“Replanting in spring disrupts the roots and will halt blooming for one year. Peonies are pretty strong plants and very hardy. They will recover,” says Charlotte Thayer, assistant to the owner at The Natural Garden, St. Charles.


Fertilizing Grass

Would it help to apply a starter fertilizer on a poor green lawn in December? Will it give it a head start for spring? It hasn’t been reseeded.

Some people have applied fertilizer over snow when the grass is dormant. However, it is best to fertilize in November to winterize your lawn and give it a start for spring, according to Steve Hipenbecker, assistant manager of Nature Scape, Gurnee. Use a fertilizer labeled as a “winterizer,” not a “starter.” Lawn starter products, typically high in phosphorus, are intended for newly seeded lawns. Winterizer fertilizers are typically high in potassium, which helps increase cold tolerance and disease resistance. Although advertised for fall application, winterizer fertilizer can be applied in spring as well. You can seed in spring, but early September is generally considered the best time to seed a lawn. The soil is still warm, the nights have cooled down, and dew collects on the grass each morning.


Amaryllis Bulbs

I plan on saving my amaryllis bulbs that I kept outside over summer, but I noticed red streaks on the inner side of the leaves. What caused that? Will I be able to save my bulbs?

There are several possible causes of red streaks in amaryllis hybrids (Hippeastrum), explains Bill Welter, owner of Victor Hlavacek Florist, Winnetk. If the streaks occur on the foliage only, excess moisture and not enough air around the bulb could have caused the streaks. Amaryllis is also susceptible to leaf scorch, which can cause red streaks on the foliage and on the bulb. This was common on older varieties.

You can save the bulb for next season by letting the leaves die down, then trimming off the foliage, and dipping the bulb in a fungicide solution. Another possible reason for leaf scorch is tobacco mosaic disease, transmitted by insects.


Tree Position

What is the correct distance from my house to plant a tree? What is the correct distance from the lot line to plant a tree?

It depends on the size of the tree you are planting. A small tree such as a serviceberry (Amelanchier) or a dwarf flowering crab could be planted as close as four to five feet from the house. For a birch tree, a distance of six to eight feet would be the minimum.

Distance from the lot line does not matter as long as it doesn’t interfere with power or sewer lines. You should check with your village before planting. Closeness to the neighbor’s lot line is not an issue, because neighbors have the right to trim back any overhanging branches, according to Matt Zerby, partner in Wasco Nursery, St. Charles.


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