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Japanese Maple

I’m moving to a townhouse with limited direct sunlight. I would like to put a Japanese maple in a north-facing garden but don’t know if it will do well. What are the best kinds? Also, when is the best time to plant a small tree?

Japanese maples are small decorative trees which are becoming more popular as more dependable cultivars come on the market. Even so, an established tree will sometimes succumb in a severe winter. Their light requirements vary.

The trees can grow in a northeast exposure, and 6 hours of sunlight is not too much, according to Jeff Sibley, nursery manager of Red’s Garden Center, Northbrook. They need a moist, well drained, neutral soil, amended with organic matter. They can grow to 8 feet tall in a good location. He says the best planting time is right after Mother’s Day. A protected spot and plenty of moisture are critical elements for survival, even with the newer cultivars.

Sibley recommended the following cultivars of Acer palmatum var. dissectum, a cut-leaf variety, as the most graceful trees:

  • ‘Crimson Queen’ is a small shrubby tree, with finely cut reddish leaves that hold color all summer and turn scarlet before dropping off in the fall.‘Garnet’ is similar to ‘Crimson Queen’ but a somewhat more vigorous grower.‘Bloodgood’ is a vigorous, upright tree with blackish red bark. It has deep red spring and summer foliage, scarlet in the fall.
  • Acer palmatum var. dissectum ‘Viridis’ Lace Leaf Japanese Maple is a small shrub with drooping branches, green bark and pale green, finely divided leaves that turn gold in autumn. It takes shade.

Osteospermum

Can you tell me if the African daisy Osteospermum ‘Springstar Aurora’ can be winterized here? It is a healthy plant?

Those South African daisies could never endure a frigid winter here and should be considered annuals. Their daisy-like flowers with blue centers open only in sunlight and bloom best in early summer or later when summer days cool down. They can be seed-grown under lights.


Pre-Chilled Bulbs

I purchased some pre-chilled hyacinths and tulips for forcing but there were no directions with them. Does this mean I don’t have to chill them in the refrigerator, and will they just bloom in the house any time during the winter? The last batch of bulbs became moldy in the refrigerator.

Using pre-chilled bulbs avoids the 12- to 14- week cold treatment that bulbs need for indoor blooming. However, you need to pot up the bulbs in a loose potting mix. Do not cover the bulbs in plastic wrap or paper bags. It will still take 3 or 4 weeks of cold for roots to appear.

Hyacinths kept cool do not need to be potted. They can sprout roots in a saucer of water with the bulb held in place by stones. Check the water level and make sure it just touches the base of the bulb and add water as needed.

The bulbs can be forced as soon as you see roots, or you can hold them in the cold temperature to space out the bud development. Place rooted bulbs in bright light in a cool room, and watch for buds. Rotate the plant so the flowering stem will be erect. “Your previous bulbs rotted because they were not potted up,” says Lori Harms, greenhouse manager, Countryside Nursery, Crystal Lake.


Bulbs Over Winter

What is the best way to dig up, clean and store gladiolus and dahlias? What are the little white sacs on glad bulbs?

Gladiolus corms and dahlia tubers are generally dug up after the first frost or before Halloween. Cut off all the stems and foliage, let the plants dry, and shake off all the soil. Make sure each corm and tuber is firm and not rotted. Place them in a box or tray and cover with peat moss. If you know the cultivar name, tag the plant.

Store them in a dark, cool place, checking them over winter. If the dahlia tubers are shriveled, sprinkle a little water on them. Dahlias can be potted up in spring for an early start in the garden.

“The white sacs you see attached to the gladiolus corms are little bulblets. You can remove them or not. If left on the corm, they will grow larger, and may enhance the number of stems on the plant. If you remove them and plant them, it will take at least three years before they flower,” explains Joni Cotton, perennial manager, Hawthorn Gardens, Hawthorn Woods.


Good Annuals for Shade

Now that bedding impatiens (I. walleriana) are not recommended because of impatiens downy mildew, what are three good annuals for shade?

Chris Williams, production manager, K&W Greenery, Janesville, Wisc.

I like New Guinea Impatiens. They make nice bushy plants that are full of large colorful flowers and are easy to grow. You also get a large color selection with New Guineas. The SunPatiens and Bounce impatiens are fairly new plants, and they are recommended for sun as well as shade. Then there’s coleus. Who doesn’t like its colorful foliage? Many varieties grow upright, but others also spread. Torenia, also known as wishbone flower, has trumpet-like flowers of white, yellow, rose and purple that cover nicely mounded, low-growing plants.


Karen Wedel, manager of the outdoor floral department, Wedel’s Nursery, Garden Center, Kalamazoo, Mich.

One of my favorites is begonia. Tuberous varieties have large colorful blooms; wax begonias are good for mass planting. I’m also a fan of the big leaf, 16-20 inch tall Whopper series with large waxy leaves and summer-long flowers.
Another idea is coleus and caladiums. They come in different foliage colors, work great in gardens and containers. They are both also easy-care.
Finally, torenia or wishbone flower, named for the small “wishbone” inside the mouth of the pink, yellow or blue-purple flowers. Blooms all summer. Some varieties will trail.

Kevin DeBoer, manager, Big John’s Farm Market and Greenhouse, Chicago Heights

My favorite is Dragon Wing begonias. They’re usually sold in 4½ inch pots or hanging baskets. At my house I removed them from the baskets, then planted them in the ground in full shade. They turned out awesome! Plain wax leaf begonias are also good.
In addition, I like coleus. They don’t produce flowers, but they have many different vibrant leaf colors. In full shade New Guinea Impatiens will flower sparingly, but if you put them in some sun, they will flower more.


Planting Tulips

Is there a best time to plant tulips? I see them at the garden centers in late summer but I am afraid that it is too early to plant them. If I wait too long, I might forget all about them.

Fall bulb planting should wait until soil temperatures drop to 55 degrees or cooler. This usually occurs when nighttime temperatures drop to 50 degrees or lower for two weeks or more. While waiting to plant, store the tulips in a cool, dark place away from direct sunlight—but don’t forget them. After planting, water the bulbs well, advises the Netherlands Flower Bulb Information Center.

If you plant grape hyacinth bulbs amidst your tulips, they will come up early in the fall and serve to mark the position of your tulips.


Amaryllis Bulbs

I plan on saving my amaryllis bulbs that I kept outside over summer, but I noticed red streaks on the inner side of the leaves. What caused that? Will I be able to save my bulbs?

There are several possible causes of red streaks in amaryllis hybrids (Hippeastrum), explains Bill Welter, owner of Victor Hlavacek Florist, Winnetk. If the streaks occur on the foliage only, excess moisture and not enough air around the bulb could have caused the streaks. Amaryllis is also susceptible to leaf scorch, which can cause red streaks on the foliage and on the bulb. This was common on older varieties.

You can save the bulb for next season by letting the leaves die down, then trimming off the foliage, and dipping the bulb in a fungicide solution. Another possible reason for leaf scorch is tobacco mosaic disease, transmitted by insects.


Climbing Hydrangea

What does it take to make a climbing hydrangea flower? Ours was planted 3 years ago and is growing energetically. It’s in a protected nook near the patio and gets very little direct sunlight, but doesn’t act sun starved. We gave it a shot of slow release fertilizer on planting, and once since. Somewhat inadvertently it gets plenty of water, since the hose spigot is nearby and leaks, but drainage does not seem to be the problem. It now fully occupies an 8-foot trellis but shows no interest in flowering. Is it youth, lack of sun, too much or too little fertilizer, bugs, lack of pruning or what? When do these plants bloom and what conditions do they like?

Climbing hydrangea (Hydrangea anomala subsp. petiolaris) is a choice vine with rich, vigorous, dark green foliage, growing ultimately to 20 feet high and 10 feet wide. The extra moisture it gets is good, and it can bloom in shade. Brent Horvath, president and grower at Intrinsic Gardens, Hebron, has seen it blooming beautifully under a canopy of trees.

After weighing all the cultural factors you described, Horvath has concluded that your vine may be immature and will need a couple more years before it flowers. Climbing hydrangea matures very slowly, especially when it’s sold in 2 gallon containers.


Raising Lawn Level

I want to raise the level of my lawn as much as 2 feet in places. I now have a large quantity of somewhat composted wood chips and I am wondering if I can use them as fill to raise the ground level and provide a good soil in which to sow a lawn.

“It is not a good idea to use only wood chips to raise the grade of an area,” says Greg Stack, University of Illinois extension educator, horticulture. While wood chips may raise the grade for a while, over time they will decompose and eventually the site will sink. Even using them as fill and putting soil over them is not a good idea.

“I would not use straight compost by itself to raise the lawn level, but mix it with soil,” adds Stack.


Peony Blight

Last summer my neighbor told me the black spots on my peony were a blight, although my peonies bloomed nicely. What can I do about this?

Your peonies probably have a fungal disease, a common problem. The causes are wet summers with cool damp nights, too much shade, poorly drained soil, or a lack of air circulation. While your neighbor diagnosed your problem as peony blight, which is caused by an air-borne botrytis fungus, the black spots indicate the more common phytophthora blight, according to Walter Schmidtke, nursery manager at Pesche’s Garden Center in DesPlaines.

Early in the spring, young emerging shoots may suddenly wilt and fall over, turn black and show masses of gray-brown botrytis spores. If nothing is done, these spores are carried to developing buds, which turn black.

Black spots on foliage, leaves turning red in summer, and black stripes on the stalk indicate phytophthora. “Plants with these conditions won’t have as much zest” said Schmidtke.

The best protection against recurrence of either blight is good sanitation. In fall, it is important to cut down and throw away all peony foliage, cutting stalks just below the surface of the ground.

If this doesn"t work and you resort to chemicals, the treatment is the same for both diseases. As soon as the shoots emerge in spring, begin spraying with Mancozeb, a copper sulphate solution, and repeat every 7-10 days until buds form, according to University of Illinois Extension. Spray the whole soil area for overwintering spores. In early summer you can spray plants with Daconil, a general purpose fungicide. Cut away any diseased foliage at once.


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