I purchased some pre-chilled hyacinths and tulips for forcing but there were no directions with them. Does this mean I don’t have to chill them in the refrigerator, and will they just bloom in the house any time during the winter? The last batch of bulbs became moldy in the refrigerator.
Using pre-chilled bulbs avoids the 12- to 14- week cold treatment that bulbs need for indoor blooming. However, you need to pot up the bulbs in a loose potting mix. Do not cover the bulbs in plastic wrap or paper bags. It will still take 3 or 4 weeks of cold for roots to appear.
Hyacinths kept cool do not need to be potted. They can sprout roots in a saucer of water with the bulb held in place by stones. Check the water level and make sure it just touches the base of the bulb and add water as needed.
The bulbs can be forced as soon as you see roots, or you can hold them in the cold temperature to space out the bud development. Place rooted bulbs in bright light in a cool room, and watch for buds. Rotate the plant so the flowering stem will be erect. “Your previous bulbs rotted because they were not potted up,” says Lori Harms, greenhouse manager, Countryside Nursery, Crystal Lake.
What is the largest tree that one can plant? We are trying to replace some 7- to 8-foot trees that were recently destroyed.
Trees sold at garden centers that are 2.5 to 3 feet tall, with a 2.5 inch diameter trunk, can be planted by hand. A hole for a ‘balled and burlap’ tree with a 5 to 6-inch diameter trunk can be dug by hand without a tree spade.
Any tree with a trunk larger than 6 inches in diameter would need a tree spade to do the moving and digging. Even large trees, such as a 35-foot tall tree with a trunk 9 or 10 inches in diameter can be transplanted with proper equipment. “Spruces 30 feet tall can be installed easily with a tree spade,” according to Greg Oltman, owner, Gro Horticultural Enterprises, Huntley.
What are some trends in gardening you see becoming more prevalent in the next few years?
Current gardening trends continue to explore a variety of annual shade alternatives. Consider begonias of all types, such as fibrous, hiemalis, nonstop, rex, tuberous and the trademarked Big series and Dragon Wing. For a tropical feel, caladiums, elephant ears, and banana plants are not only exotic but add an element of height. Lastly, the hundreds of coleus varieties, along with black and chartreuse sweet potato vines, are colorful, reliable, and rich in texture.
I believe choosing plants for butterflies, bees and other pollinators will be an important trend in 2015 as folks realize the important role they play in our environment. Growing fruits and vegetables will also remain an important focus of gardeners, especially those that can be grown in containers and small spaces. Low-maintenance plants, preferred by both aging and beginning gardeners, will be another trend to watch in 2015.
People are looking for “bee-safe” plants that are free of neonicotinoids and other harsh pesticides. Also, they want to do vegetable gardening with non-GMO varieties. Succulents are very hot. The indoor use of succulents in dish gardens is a no-brainer; they look cool, they’re so easy to care for and make great unique gifts. Ornamental kale and cabbage have become very popular for fall decorating.
The popularity of hostas has made gardeners realize how much fun it is to use foliage for color, so they are looking beyond flowers to the reds and purples of coral bells (Heuchera); the yellow fall bottlebrushes of Amsonia hubrichtii; and the great fall colors of shrubs such as Viburnum, oakleaf hydrangeas (H. quercifolia), witch hazel (Hamamelis) and trees such as seven son flower, (Hepticodium), Ginkgo and scarlet oak (Quercus coccinea).
Will a trumpet vine growing on a tree harm it?
Trumpet vine (Campsis radicans) is a vigorous vine which can climb to the top of a tree in one season and spreads by suckering roots. It blooms in full sun in clusters of 3-inch-long orange tubes with flaring scarlet lobes.
The vine will not harm an established tree but a young tree could be stressed.
“There may be root competition between the vine and the tree for moisture, especially if your tree needs a lot of water. However, trumpet vines can grow with less moisture. When customers claim their vine does not bloom, it is because they are watering and pampering it too much,” says Lori Harms, greenhouse manager, Countryside Nursery and Garden Center, Crystal Lake.
What ratio and amounts of fertilizer would you use for a perennial bed and a vegetable garden? For growing annuals in a greenhouse, should the fertilizer be fast or slow-release, organic or inorganic?
Use 3 to 5 pounds of a 10-5-10 or 10-10-10 fertilizer per 1000 square feet in the perennial bed. Add leaves as mulch. In your vegetable bed, nutrients are important. Fertilize more heavily using a 10-10-10 fertilizer at the rate of 5 to 10 pounds per 1000 square feet.
For hanging baskets of annuals in a greenhouse, a slow-release fertilizer is best. Use a 20-10-20 liquid fertilizer following label directions. In general, organic fertilizers have a lower chemical analysis than inorganic ones, so you have to use more, according to David Tyznik, owner of Planter’s Palette, Winfield.
A healthy plant is dependent on its soil. A balanced soil is rich in beneficial microorganisms that improve the soil structure and supply necessary nutrients. Soilless potting mixes have no microorganisms. “Both organic and inorganic fertilizers work well, but those in soilless mixes need more fertilizer,” says Tyznik.
I keep seeing photos of interesting plants I’d like to grow, but they’re labeled zone 6 and I’m in zone 5. What can I do to successfully overwinter these marginal plants? I’d like to try them, but I don’t want to waste my money.
“Pushing a plant past the limits of its hardiness is not for the average gardener,” says Marie Dvorak of The Planter’s Palette in Winfield, “but plants can sometimes be successfully overwintered by siting them in a special microclimate such as a sheltered southern exposure.” Another tip comes from horticulturist Ann Hancock at Michigan State University, where they are trialing perennials that the English firm Blooms of Bressingham is introducing in the U.S. Hancock explains that the best way to keep perennials that are tender in Zone 5 or that are rated for Zone 6 is to grow them in raised beds with good drainage because poorly drained wet soils will cause the roots to rot. In addition, it is important to check perennial beds for plants that have heaved out of the soil through repeated freezing and thawing. Replace them in the soil and protect with mulch.
One example of a marginally hardy plant that will be getting attention this year is ‘Flamenco’, a new cultivar of Tritoma (Kniphofia, red-hot poker) that has just been named an All-America Selections Winner for 1999. Tritomas should have their foliage tied upright so water does not remain in the crown, said Hancock.
My Siberian iris ‘Gracilis’ plants have only one bloom per clump. I have five 3 to 5 year-old clumps that are 8 to 10 inches wide. They do not appear to be crowded. All are planted in a moist area. Why is there only one bloom per clump?
“Iris bloom is directly proportional to the amount of sun received,” proclaimed Chuck Simon, Hinsdale, past president of the Northern Illinois Iris Society, who grows 10,000 rhizomes of 1,000 to 1,500 iris varieties. Iris need 4 to 5 hours of sun, but full sun is best. Another cause of bloom failure could be iris borers, which eat mature fans and cause only minor increases in plant growth. Spray with Cygon 2E in spring when eggs of borers hatch in order to break their life cycle. When transplanting iris, make sure the roots remain moist. Grow them in moist but not wet soil. In the first year after planting, water them religiously. Once past that point, they are very hardy. Simon, a master iris judge, referred to the American Iris Society checklist for any special cultural conditions affecting bloom and discovered that this variety is very old. Iris siberica ‘Gracilis’ was introduced in 1927.
This past spring I planted a lacebark pine (Pinus bungeana) in full sun. As winter began, the angle of the sun’s rays has caused the tree to receive, at most, 4 hours of sun. What are sun requirements of evergreens in winter?
In general, pines adapt to the winter weather by becoming dormant, says Susan Eyre, Rich’s Foxwillow Pines Nursery, Woodstock. It is the freeze and thaw cycle that is hard on a plant, not the loss of sun hours. In a January thaw, sap rises and then freezes, which can cause the bark to crack, but plants usually recover.
What causes black spots on my orchid leaves?
There are a number of causes for black spots, depending on the type of orchid.
“In some varieties, like Oncidium ‘Cherry Baby’, the small black spots through the leaf are normal,” says Liese Butler, owner, Oak Hill
Black spots on the top of the leaf could be sunburn, caused when sunlight scalds a drop of water that has been left on a leaf. Newer growth of Cattleya orchids can normally have a purplish spot. A black mushy spot and a black stem indicate rot.
What is the green worm that eats my roses and columbine every year?
It is hard to diagnose your problem without seeing the caterpillar. There are several green worms that bother roses, and one can be controlled with Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) but rose slug, for example, cannot. Proper identification is necessary before applying any control method. Do not use an insecticide for anything that"s not on on the product label. Do not use any insecticide as a preventive measure. It doesn"t work and ends up being harmful to the environment and a waste of your money.
Green worm on your columbine could be an inch worm or canker worm. If the caterpillar loops up in the center or arches as it moves along, it could be a looper or cabbage worm. Leaf miners, which are usually white or pink, tunnel in the leaves. “To eliminate insects, use insecticidal soap,” said Nancy Clifton, Chicago Botanic Garden Plant Information Specialist.
For an exact diagnosis, consult your local University of Illinois Extension service or collect a specimen and bring it to the Plant Information Service at the Chicago Botanic Garden or the Morton Arboretum.
I start ‘Dragon Wing’ begonia from seed under grow lights. What other begonias can I use to cross-pollinate with the ‘Dragon Wing’ so I can collect my own seeds?
Would it help to apply a starter fertilizer on a poor green lawn in December? Will it give it a head start for spring? It hasn’t been reseeded.
What is rose rosette disease? I lost two antique roses and removed a hedge of multiflora roses that were supposed to be undesirable. How bad is it?