I have twelve beautiful blooming violet plants on my office desk, placed 12 inches from a light source that’s kept burning day and night. I water them from the bottom and let the water remain in the saucer.
No matter what I spray, I continue to have gnats and other insects in my soil. I also occasionally start to get yellow spots on the tips of the leaves and then the spots start going down the leaves. What’s going on here?
A number of factors could be causing your problems.
“Yellow tips indicate your plant is showing stress either from lack of humidity or watering too much; it’s hard to pinpoint,” says Sandy Fuller, Palatine, past president of Barrington Bloomers, who grows 100 African violets under lights in her basement.
Peat-based soil needs to dry out for fungus gnats to disappear. Use a magnifying glass and try to identify them. Gnats eat only decaying plant material and do not damage the plants. If you have mealy bugs, their cottony waxy sac is easy to identify.
Office tap water may be too cold. Let it sit for half a day before using it. If the water is too cold, the plant could rot. Some violets are more sensitive than others to temperature changes.
Repot your plants in African violet soil and use a 20-20-20 fertilizer.
After a summer outside, my clivia has returned indoors. Last year it had only one puny flower. What treatment should I give it over winter to bring it into bloom?
A. Clivia miniata, sometimes known as Kaffir lily, a South African native, is a member of the amaryllis family. When growing clivia, it is important to observe seasonal changes. During short winter days, stop fertilizing entirely until spring, and stop watering also.
“Treat your plant like a cactus,” says Steve Butcher, tropical plant specialist at Sid’s Garden Center in Palos Hills. “You can keep it completely dry for a couple of weeks up to the point of shriveling before watering. Keep your plant in a cool place; 55 to 65 degrees is ideal, but that’s hard to achieve in many homes. It does not need a brightly lit location.”
When the days lengthen, move the plant into a brighter location and increase watering. There are no hard-and-fast rules on watering. The frequency depends on the pot size and the root mass. Use a water-soluble, high-phosphorus fertilizer every second or third watering. After you see buds, reduce fertilizer to once per month. Root bound plants flower better.
Following this regime last winter, Editor Carolyn Ulrich reported five bloom stalks on one of her plants in February. Other plants bloomed in March but one didn’t bloom until June. Clivia are considered a winter-flowering houseplant, but bloom time will vary. Be patient.
What causes black spots on my orchid leaves?
There are a number of causes for black spots, depending on the type of orchid.
“In some varieties, like Oncidium ‘Cherry Baby’, the small black spots through the leaf are normal,” says Liese Butler, owner, Oak Hill
Black spots on the top of the leaf could be sunburn, caused when sunlight scalds a drop of water that has been left on a leaf. Newer growth of Cattleya orchids can normally have a purplish spot. A black mushy spot and a black stem indicate rot.
I brought a frangipani (Plumeria) back from Hawaii last April when it was just a leafless branch. It sprouted leaves and grew over summer. Now it is losing its leaves. How can I keep it growing over winter? Will it bloom?
During winter, plumerias defoliate naturally. Keep your plant somewhat dry.
” We keep it in the cactus section over winter because it really likes to dry out. It doesn’t need a lot of misting. A southwest window with bright light is the best exposure for it.” says Lourdes Espinosa, greenhouse associate, Sid’s Nursery and Greenhouse in Palos Heights.
In spring, depending on the weather, and as the days lengthen, resume watering and fertilize with a high-phosphorus liquid fertilizer every two weeks. When the night temperatures remain reliably above 50 degrees, the plumeria can be grown outside. Acclimate the plant slowly to the outdoor light by keeping it in a shady place for a week. It flowers from summer to autumn.
Plumerias can grow into a 3-foot shrub with good care. Wear gloves when pruning since the sap is toxic and irritating to the skin.
I have a cycas palm and am not sure how much direct sunlight or water it needs. It has light brown marks developing on the leaves. What is causing this, and how do I care for my plant?
Cycas palms or sago palms (Cycas revoluta) are tough house or patio plants. They are neither palms nor ferns but primitive cone-bearing relatives of conifers. A rosette of green feather-like leaves, 2 to 3 feet in height, grows from a central point at the top of a single trunk.
Cycas need bright light and should be kept relatively moist with weekly watering. However, prolonged rainy spells can cause fungal leaf spot disease.
“The shiny brown spots are probably caused by scale,” says Jeff Frohn, sales associate at Geimer Greenhouses, Long Grove. “It can be treated with fish oil, vegetable oil or an all-in-one insecticide spray,” adds Mike Geimer, owner, Geimer Greenhouses.
I have houseplants outside that I will need to bring indoors. What is the lowest temperature at which I can leave them outside?
The rule of thumb is when night temperatures are in the 50s, it is time to bring your houseplants indoors, according to horticulturists at Pesche’s garden center, Des Plaines.
To avoid the shock of suddenly bringing plants into a hot dry environment, place them in a shaded area before the heat comes on in the house. Bring in sensitive tropicals such as hibiscus and anthuriums as soon as summer cools down.
Christmas cactus and cymbidium orchids can tolerate chillier temperatures and stay outdoors longer, but move them indoors before the thermometer drops to freezing, says Greg Stack, University of Illinois Extension Educator, Horticulture. Indoors, a cool 50-degree area such as an unheated sun porch will give them the short day situation they need to set flower buds. Stack keeps his Christmas cactus in a cool unused room where the lights aren’t turned on. His plant sets buds and blooms reliably every year, he reports. Christmas cactus buds will dry up in an overheated, dry room.
I brought my mandevilla plant into the house to overwinter. How best can I keep it? Will it flower? Can I root pieces of it?
Mandevilla is a tropical vine requiring high light. Keep it in the sunniest part of your home. It will not flower over winter because the light intensities will not be great enough to bring on flowers and many of the leaves will fall off. It is best to keep it in a semi-dormant stage by trimming it back, withholding fertilizer and allowing it to dry out between waterings. Mandevilla is prone to aphids, white fly and mealy bugs, but don’t treat the plant preventively with an insecticide. It doesn’t work, and it also adds unnecessary chemicals to your indoor air. Treat a bug problem only if one develops. One preventive measure that does work is to give your houseplants a periodic shower or spritz them with a hand spray in the kitchen sink.
When the days are longer in early spring, begin feeding it with a 20-20-20 plant food to encourage new growth and then switch to a 20-30-20 formula. “It’s hard to propagate in winter, but in spring when your plant gets a burst of new growth, you can try to root cuttings,Ôø‡Ôø‡Ôø‡ advised Susan Izenstark, tropical specialist at Jamaican Gardens, Morton Grove.
We have a skylight in the bathroom over our Jacuzzi tub with an area around the tub that is quite large. What plants can we grow there, and what care do they need? Can we grow orchids?
Use plants that grow in low light such as pothos, philodendron, peace lily (Spathiphyllum), Chinese evergreen (Aglaonema), any type of dracaena, and include lady palm (Rhapis) for height. It would be possible to grow moth orchids (Phalaenopsis).
“While the bathroom will give you good humidity, your plants must be watered thoroughly. The peace lily needs to be kept evenly moist. Feed monthly with an all-purpose houseplant fertilizer,” advises Elizabeth Hoffman, manager, West End Florist, Evanston.
I am growing my potted tropical hibiscus indoors for the winter. The leaves are starting to yellow and fall off. Should I give the plant iron and should I fertilize it? Do I cut it back, and if so, when?
Hibiscus leaves turn yellow in response to the change in environment. The older leaves fall off first. If the leaves are chronically pale yellow with green veins, the plant could be lacking iron, but in your case, it is probably the change in growing conditions that is affecting the plant. When the days get longer in February or March, prune it to shape it, or cut it down to force good bottom growth.”
“Don’t panic; the plant expresses itself dramatically,” reassures Mike Geimer, owner of Geimer Greenhouses, Long Grove. “Don’t be timid pruning it.”
I have a hoya houseplant that has been growing happily for eight years. It had flowers when I received it, but it hasn’t bloomed since. What am I doing wrong? Can I get it to flower?
There are many varieties of hoyas. In general, they are easily grown houseplants. Some are fragrant and some have a cascading habit. Give hoyas a moderate amount of light but not deep shade. They can remain in the same container for years without repotting.
Shortened day length, combined with cooler night-time temperatures and dryness over a couple of winter months should bring your hoya into bloom. “Let your plant go dry. It needs a bit of drought,” says Susan Izenstark, horticulturist at Jamaican Gardens, Morton Grove. “The bud is a nodule on the stem. Notice when it swells a little. This is your signal to begin watering.”
I would like to start seeds under lights. When is the best time to start flower seeds? The seed packet always says to sow a number of weeks before the last frost. When is the last frost?
I have lost four 12-15 foot tall white pine trees over the last year. All had the same symptoms, browning needles at the bottom that continued up to the top. Can you tell me what pest is killing the white pines? I am also losing an Austrian pine now. It is experiencing the same symptoms.
I have a Japanese maple that was hit by frost. Some of the leaves are curled and brown. Will they fall off and new leaves grow? Is there anything I can do to help the tree? What is the best method to prevent this from ever happening again?