My Siberian iris ‘Gracilis’ plants have only one bloom per clump. I have five 3 to 5 year-old clumps that are 8 to 10 inches wide. They do not appear to be crowded. All are planted in a moist area. Why is there only one bloom per clump?
“Iris bloom is directly proportional to the amount of sun received,” proclaimed Chuck Simon, Hinsdale, past president of the Northern Illinois Iris Society, who grows 10,000 rhizomes of 1,000 to 1,500 iris varieties. Iris need 4 to 5 hours of sun, but full sun is best. Another cause of bloom failure could be iris borers, which eat mature fans and cause only minor increases in plant growth. Spray with Cygon 2E in spring when eggs of borers hatch in order to break their life cycle. When transplanting iris, make sure the roots remain moist. Grow them in moist but not wet soil. In the first year after planting, water them religiously. Once past that point, they are very hardy. Simon, a master iris judge, referred to the American Iris Society checklist for any special cultural conditions affecting bloom and discovered that this variety is very old. Iris siberica ‘Gracilis’ was introduced in 1927.
Our Russian sage (Perovskia) is full and bountiful but will not stay upright. Is there anything we can do? Is there a way to split some off when it has outgrown its space? Should it be trimmed back in fall or spring?
The normal growing habit of Russian sage is to open in the center, according to Tina Pansic, staff horticulturist at Chalet Nursery, Wilmette, who says this is a common complaint. Russian sage must be grown in full sun and can be supported by pea stakes (willow or dogwood branches) or commercial wire stakes. A new cultivar, ‘Little Spire’ is shorter and will stay upright. Your plant can be divided by breaking up the root system with a spade as the bottom stems get woody.Wait until spring to cut the plant to the ground. Plants that are cut back in autumn suffer more winterkill. Pansic cuts her perovskia halfway down in late summer to control the spreading, and then cuts it to the ground the following spring
I have read that purple coneflowers (Echinacea) are a good source of food for birds in the winter. Will they be okay if not trimmed back until spring? If so, how early should they be trimmed?
If your coneflowers remain standing over winter, the seed heads will be available as bird food and will also be an attractive presence in the winter garden. They should be cut back in early spring before April. If you prefer, you can cut the plant back after frost and throw the seed heads on the ground.
We moved into a house with a lovely azalea that didn’t bloom. We thought it might have been over-pruned. Last fall we did not prune it and now it still hasn’t bloomed. I was hoping to transplant it this year, but it looks rather sickly. Shall we prune it again and give it another year? Can I still transplant it?
Stop pruning your plant since you may have over-pruned it. Evergreen azaleas only need tip pruning in July after their flowers have faded.
Concentrate now on rebuilding the azalea into a healthy plant. Do not transplant a sickly one. Feed your plant regularly with an liquid acidic fertilizer. Keep your plant weeded and its roots moist by using mulch because azaleas are surface rooters. Make sure your plant is situated in soil with good drainage and in a part sun/part shade location.
Try this regime over summer and evaluate your plant next spring, advises Charlene Wooten, manager, Cedar Hill Nursery, Lake Zurich.
I have a large variegated sedum with pink flowers that I have had for years. I noticed that it has started to send up some all-green shoots. Why is it doing this and how can I keep my plant variegated?
All variegated plants contain a combination of green cells with chlorophyll and white tissue with no chlorophyll, which produces the green and white effect. Variegated plants are genetically unstable, so sometimes the tissues revert to all-green cells and send up solid green shoots from the base of the plant. Because these shoots contain more chlorophyll than the variegated tissue, they are more vigorous. Thus they can quickly overrun a plant, according to Hortech, a developer and grower of sedums.
Cut the green shoots off at the base of the plant as soon as you see them. It is possible you have induced vigorous growth by giving the plant too much high-nitrogen fertilizer, so it would be wise not to fertilize. It sometimes helps to divide your plant and then choose the most variegated stems for a new plant. Since your sedum, a cultivar of Sedum spectabile, is such a rapid grower, it will quickly become a new clump after division. Newer named cultivars are more genetically stable and do not have this problem.
When is the best time to cut back hydrangeas? How far do I cut them back?
Pruning hydrangeas depends on the species. Oakleaf hydrangea (H. quercifolia) and Peegee hydrangea (H. paniculata), with its well-known cultivars ‘Limelight’ ‘Little Lamb’ and ‘Tardiva’, are woody shrubs that bloom on old wood. Trim them within two to three weeks after flowering. The following year’s primary flower buds form near the top of the stems in late summer. If you wait too long to prune, you will be cutting off flowers on the old stems.
The new bigleaf hydrangea (H. macrophylla) ‘Endless Summer’ is an herbaceous plant that dies to the ground over winter and starts into new growth in spring. It can be cut at any time since it flowers on both old and new wood.
Hydrangea ‘Annabelle’ (H. arborescens) can be trimmed at any time. “It dies back totally to the ground each year so you can keep it trimmed to the size you want,” says Jean Bragdon, garden center manager at Lurvey’s Garden Center, Des Plaines.
From what I have read, hellebores are supposed to spread. I have a few I planted four years ago, and they seem to be the same as when I planted them. They are planted in a bed of vinca. Should I remove more vinca that surrounds them? I do fertilize them and protect them with a winter mulch. What else should I be doing to have more plants?
Hellebores increase slowly into clumps so have patience, counsels Chris Darbo, wholesale manager of The Natural Garden, St. Charles, and an enthusiastic hellebore grower. “I have Helleborus foetidus, which has finely cut leaves and blooms in January, and H. orientalis, the Lenten rose. Both have increased in twelve years to four times the size of the original plants, but they haven"t self sown. They are planted in a bed of sweet woodruff in a partly shady location.”
“I also have a clump of H. orientalis that was transplanted into my back yard five years ago, and it seeds all over the place. It is planted in shade with no ground cover. My theory is if the seeds can"t reach the ground, they can"t grow!” It takes three years before seedlings bloom.
According to Darbo, hellebores do not need fertilizer. She never rakes leaves from garden beds but instead lets fallen leaves act as a winter mulch. Leaf decomposition over the years has helped her soil to become more loamy.
H. niger, the Christmas rose, does not self seed as readily as H. orientalis and H. foetidus.
Note: A new strain of H.orientalis has recently reached the market. Known as the Royal Heritage strain, it includes colors and patterns never seen before in the species. Fifteen years in the making, Royal Heritage hellebores were developed by John Elsley, Director of Horticulture at Song Sparrow Farm in Avalon, Wisconsin.
What are your three favorite “all-but-forgotten” perennials that every garden should include? Why do you like them?
Anemone tomentosa ‘Robustissima’ is a late season plant for sun to part shade and a wide range of soils. Deer and rabbit resistant with few pests or diseases. The fuzzy texture and gray-green leaves of Stachys byzantina ‘Helene von Stein’ complement other sun plants wonderfully. Leaves mask brown lower foliage of asters. The 3 to 5-foot tall Baptista australis and PRAIRIEBLUES cultivars offer gorgeous blue and purple flowers and they attract butterflies. They like full to part shade and tolerate poor soils.
My three favorite forgotten perennials are plumbago, bergenia and Stokes’ aster. Plumbago (Ceratostigma plumbaginoides) is a ground cover with sky blue flowers in fall and red leaves. Intersperse it with spring bulbs for three seasons of interest. Bergenia (Bergenia cordifolia) is versatile, handling conditions from moist sunny areas to dry shade. It is rabbit and deer resistant. When you rub your two fingers on either side of the leaf you can make it squeak (hence another common name: pig squeak). The long-blooming and easy-care Stokes’ aster (Stokesia laevis) is fairly pest and disease free. Rabbits tend not to eat it, and it attracts butterflies.
Three favorites of ours are pasque flower (Pulsatilla vulgaris), Laddie peony (Paeonia peregrina) and balloon flower (Platycodon grandiflorus). Pasque flower blooms very early in spring with extremely soft leaves and silvery green buds. Red, white or purple flowers; purple seems to have more vigor. The ferny-leaved Laddie peony also blooms very early with red flowers. It’s a hybrid of Paeonia peregrina and P. tenuifolia. Balloon flower is named for blue, pink or white flowers that start out looking like a balloon and open to look like a star. They have a long blooming period in summer.
I have some peonies that I want to transplant but cannot plant them in their permanent place until next spring when our new house will be built. Can I dig them now and transplant them again next spring?
The correct time for transplanting herbaceous peonies is late September into October. Cut back the foliage when you dig them up. Each clump you move should have at least three eyes, or growth buds, and thick tuberous roots. Dig a hole deep enough to cover the eyes with two inches of soil when you transplant. If planted too deeply, they will not bloom.
Transplant the peony into its temporary place, or else move it into a container and dig the container into a shady area, not in full sun. Be careful about watering the container plant; try to keep it evenly moist. Next spring, move the peony into its permanent location, suggests David Leider, perennial grower at Klehm Plants, Barrington.
“Replanting in spring disrupts the roots and will halt blooming for one year. Peonies are pretty strong plants and very hardy. They will recover,” says Charlotte Thayer, assistant to the owner at The Natural Garden, St. Charles.
Is it possible to plant and grow Italian cypress in the Chicago area? Are our winters too severe for it? If they are, is there an alternative conifer that will provide a similar look?
I plan on saving my amaryllis bulbs that I kept outside over summer, but I noticed red streaks on the inner side of the leaves. What caused that? Will I be able to save my bulbs?
My lilac had a grayish blight on the leaves this summer. What caused this and how can I prevent it?