Now that bedding impatiens (I. walleriana) are not recommended because of impatiens downy mildew, what are three good annuals for shade?
Chris Williams, production manager, K&W Greenery, Janesville, Wisc.
I like New Guinea Impatiens. They make nice bushy plants that are full of large colorful flowers and are easy to grow. You also get a large color selection with New Guineas. The SunPatiens and Bounce impatiens are fairly new plants, and they are recommended for sun as well as shade. Then there’s coleus. Who doesn’t like its colorful foliage? Many varieties grow upright, but others also spread. Torenia, also known as wishbone flower, has trumpet-like flowers of white, yellow, rose and purple that cover nicely mounded, low-growing plants.
Karen Wedel, manager of the outdoor floral department, Wedel’s Nursery, Garden Center, Kalamazoo, Mich.
One of my favorites is begonia. Tuberous varieties have large colorful blooms; wax begonias are good for mass planting. I’m also a fan of the big leaf, 16-20 inch tall Whopper series with large waxy leaves and summer-long flowers.
Another idea is coleus and caladiums. They come in different foliage colors, work great in gardens and containers. They are both also easy-care.
Finally, torenia or wishbone flower, named for the small “wishbone” inside the mouth of the pink, yellow or blue-purple flowers. Blooms all summer. Some varieties will trail.
Kevin DeBoer, manager, Big John’s Farm Market and Greenhouse, Chicago Heights
My favorite is Dragon Wing begonias. They’re usually sold in 4½ inch pots or hanging baskets. At my house I removed them from the baskets, then planted them in the ground in full shade. They turned out awesome! Plain wax leaf begonias are also good.
In addition, I like coleus. They don’t produce flowers, but they have many different vibrant leaf colors. In full shade New Guinea Impatiens will flower sparingly, but if you put them in some sun, they will flower more.
I’d like to plant a white bark birch in front of my home in my sunny front yard. What can you tell me about Betula utilis var. Jacquemontii?
The birch, Betula utilis var. Jacquemontii is a tall, narrow tree (to 100 feet) with very white bark that’s native to India. It is subject to borers. The popular weeping white bark birch, B. pendula is also subject to borers in our climate and is not a suitable choice.
“There are better birch choices, so choose what grows well in our area,” advises Ken Morris, vice president of Spring Bluff Nursery in Sugar Grove. Two trees resistant to borers are the paper or canoe birch and the river birch.
Canoe or paper birch (B. papyrifera) has a stout trunk with creamy white bark that peels off in papery layers. It is native to North America. It is the first paper birch bred to resist the bronze birch borer, but it still needs to be monitored and sprayed yearly for the borers. A good cultivar is ‘Renaissance Reflection.’
River birch (B. nigra), native to the eastern United States, is fast growing when young. It can reach more than 50 feet in height. Its bark is a smooth, shiny apricot and, when mature, flakes and curls in cinnamon strips. It tolerates slow drainage and is also resistant to borers. “It’s pretty tough, good and sturdy,” says Morris.
The cultivar ‘Heritage’ was introduced to much acclaim around 15 years ago.
Birch trees need moisture. Do not allow your tree to dry out in your sunny site.
I have a large variegated sedum with pink flowers that I have had for years. I noticed that it has started to send up some all-green shoots. Why is it doing this and how can I keep my plant variegated?
All variegated plants contain a combination of green cells with chlorophyll and white tissue with no chlorophyll, which produces the green and white effect. Variegated plants are genetically unstable, so sometimes the tissues revert to all-green cells and send up solid green shoots from the base of the plant. Because these shoots contain more chlorophyll than the variegated tissue, they are more vigorous. Thus they can quickly overrun a plant, according to Hortech, a developer and grower of sedums.
Cut the green shoots off at the base of the plant as soon as you see them. It is possible you have induced vigorous growth by giving the plant too much high-nitrogen fertilizer, so it would be wise not to fertilize. It sometimes helps to divide your plant and then choose the most variegated stems for a new plant. Since your sedum, a cultivar of Sedum spectabile, is such a rapid grower, it will quickly become a new clump after division. Newer named cultivars are more genetically stable and do not have this problem.
I’d like to block an unattractive view of my neighbor’s house/yard. What are some good plant/tree choices to hide unattractive views?
John Eskandari, owner, The Urban Plantsman, Chicago
Two evergreens for sun are Thuja occientalis ‘Wintergreen’ and Picea pungens ‘Fastigiata’. Both are moderate to fast growers. For shadier locations, Picea abies ‘Cuppressina’ does remarkably well.
A deciduous tree that would work nicely is Fagus sylvatica ‘Dawyck’. It comes in green, gold, red and purple leaved varieties. They work well in shadier spots but the red and purple leaves are less intense in shade.
In smaller areas, I like Amelanchier laevis ‘Cumulus’. It’s a more upright form of serviceberry providing nice spring blooms, edible berries, and golden fall color. It is adaptable to both sun and shade.
Chrissie Sieff, nursery manager, Platt Hill Nursery, Bloomingdale
Whenever I am asked this question, my customers usually have something in mind such as ‘Emerald Green’ arborvitae (Thuja occidentalis ’Emerald Green’, sometimes labeled ‘Smaragd’). They want a green wall, and they want it instantly! Our dead plant return rate is high on this item, so I try to steer them to hardier choices, such as Viburnum nudum ‘Winterthur’ or Syringa pubescens subsp. patula ‘Miss Kim’.
A strategically placed tree can also do the trick. I love katsura tree (Cercidiphyllum japonicum), river birch (Betula nigra), serviceberry (Amelanchier), and ‘Ivory Silk’ tree lilacs. As you can tell, I’m not a big fan of evergreens.
Andy Wedel, part owner, Wedel’s Nursery, Florist & Garden Center, Kalamazoo, MI
Arborvitae (Thuja spp.) is the first plant we think of, but there are others. It’s hard to pick just one. Fine Line buckthorn (Rhamnus frangula ‘Ron Williams’) is a columnar-shaped deciduous shrub with yellow fall color. Evergreen, drought-tolerant upright junipers such as Juniperus chinensis ‘Blue Point’ are great in sunny spots. Some other columnar trees include ‘Crimson Sentry’ maple (Acer platanoides ‘Crimson Sentry’), Red Fox katsura (Cercidiphyllum japonicum ‘Rotfuchs’), and columnar hornbeam (Carpinus spp., cvs.).
We are first-time gardeners and have planted Brussels sprouts and green and red cabbage that we are trying to grow organically. There are black egg sacs and small green worms eating the leaves. Is there an organic product we can use on the cabbage?
Egg sacs can be washed off with a hose.
There are several organic methods you can use to deter cabbage worms. Lightweight polypropylene row covers, placed over a row of plants and supported by hoops, will block wind and insects while permitting light, air and rain to reach the plants. Hold down the row covers with soil, stones or bricks.
Another organic method uses pots of mint growing between cabbage plants. The mint odor is said to deter cabbage moths. Don’t let the mint take root, however; it will take over your garden. Rotenone dust is considered organic, as it leaves no poisonous residue on plants. The use of hot pepper spray is an irritant to insects and worms, but also to your skin and eyes. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a specific biological control that is fatal to cabbage worms if ingested. Note that it can be harmful to certain butterfly larvae.
Is it possible to plant and grow Italian cypress in the Chicago area? Are our winters too severe for it? If they are, is there an alternative conifer that will provide a similar look?
Italian cypress (Cupressus sempervirens) has dark green foliage and horizontal branches and grows into a dense column 60 feet high in Italy. It is not hardy here.
Paul Jeffers, tree and shrub salesperson, Gethsemane Garden Center, Chicago, suggests substituting a dense, columnar arborvitae, (Thuja occidentalis ‘Fastigiata’). It grows to 25 feet tall and 5 feet wide, but can be kept lower by pruning. The very narrow arborvitae ‘DeGroots Spire’ is another choice. The false cypress Chamaecyparis nootkatensis ‘Green Arrow’, often mistaken for arborvitae, is a tight upright growing plant.
We moved into a house with a lovely azalea that didn’t bloom. We thought it might have been over-pruned. Last fall we did not prune it and now it still hasn’t bloomed. I was hoping to transplant it this year, but it looks rather sickly. Shall we prune it again and give it another year? Can I still transplant it?
Stop pruning your plant since you may have over-pruned it. Evergreen azaleas only need tip pruning in July after their flowers have faded.
Concentrate now on rebuilding the azalea into a healthy plant. Do not transplant a sickly one. Feed your plant regularly with an liquid acidic fertilizer. Keep your plant weeded and its roots moist by using mulch because azaleas are surface rooters. Make sure your plant is situated in soil with good drainage and in a part sun/part shade location.
Try this regime over summer and evaluate your plant next spring, advises Charlene Wooten, manager, Cedar Hill Nursery, Lake Zurich.
Would it help to apply a starter fertilizer on a poor green lawn in December? Will it give it a head start for spring? It hasn’t been reseeded.
Some people have applied fertilizer over snow when the grass is dormant. However, it is best to fertilize in November to winterize your lawn and give it a start for spring, according to Steve Hipenbecker, assistant manager of Nature Scape, Gurnee. Use a fertilizer labeled as a “winterizer,” not a “starter.” Lawn starter products, typically high in phosphorus, are intended for newly seeded lawns. Winterizer fertilizers are typically high in potassium, which helps increase cold tolerance and disease resistance. Although advertised for fall application, winterizer fertilizer can be applied in spring as well. You can seed in spring, but early September is generally considered the best time to seed a lawn. The soil is still warm, the nights have cooled down, and dew collects on the grass each morning.
I dislike staking perennials. Is there anything I can do to avoid it?
There are several techniques you can use to limit time spent on this chore, but it is difficult to totally
avoid staking some plants.
First and foremost, the old adage “right plant, right place” means full sun perennials need to be grown in full sun for tight upright growth. If they are too shaded, the plant will stretch or bend toward the sun and grow in a loose habit. Growing plants a little closer together also helps because it enables plants to support each other.
The best remedy to avoid staking is to cut some tall plants down by one-half in June. That will delay flowering in helenium, monarda, platycodon, chrysanthemum and aster, but the plants will remain upright. If you really want to eliminate cutting back, grow dwarf versions of these plants.”
Short, thin branches from forsythia or dogwood (known as “pea staking” in England) can be placed around the perimeter of newly emerging plants to help keep the stems upright. Some garden centers have begun selling bundles of branches for this purpose. In a short time, the shrub cuttings are covered by emerging shoots. This technique works well with fine foliage such as baby’s breath or flax.
There are numerous staking supports from bamboo to iron rebar rods. Wire staking supports are available in full, half and even quarter circles to support single stems. Peony hoops can be left in place over winter and will support not only peonies but boltonia, baptisia, and even errant tomatoes.
Some plants always need to be staked. Giant dahlia tubers need a heavy stake dug into the hole at planting time. That prized, single-stemmed iris, lily, or delphinium can get blasted in a storm, and then it’s too late to save it.
Remember: the time to stake plants is during the cooler days of spring when plants are growing rapidly and not on humid July days. Staking should be done unobtrusively and subtly for plants to retain their natural grace.
I brought my mandevilla plant into the house to overwinter. How best can I keep it? Will it flower? Can I root pieces of it?
Mandevilla is a tropical vine requiring high light. Keep it in the sunniest part of your home. It will not flower over winter because the light intensities will not be great enough to bring on flowers and many of the leaves will fall off. It is best to keep it in a semi-dormant stage by trimming it back, withholding fertilizer and allowing it to dry out between waterings. Mandevilla is prone to aphids, white fly and mealy bugs, but don’t treat the plant preventively with an insecticide. It doesn’t work, and it also adds unnecessary chemicals to your indoor air. Treat a bug problem only if one develops. One preventive measure that does work is to give your houseplants a periodic shower or spritz them with a hand spray in the kitchen sink.
When the days are longer in early spring, begin feeding it with a 20-20-20 plant food to encourage new growth and then switch to a 20-30-20 formula. “It’s hard to propagate in winter, but in spring when your plant gets a burst of new growth, you can try to root cuttings,Ôø‡Ôø‡Ôø‡ advised Susan Izenstark, tropical specialist at Jamaican Gardens, Morton Grove.
What ratio and amounts of fertilizer would you use for a perennial bed and a vegetable garden? For growing annuals in a greenhouse, should the fertilizer be fast or slow-release, organic or inorganic?
What plants do you predict will be best sellers this year? Why?
Where can I send a letter to the editor?