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Fertilizer

What ratio and amounts of fertilizer would you use for a perennial bed and a vegetable garden? For growing annuals in a greenhouse, should the fertilizer be fast or slow-release, organic or inorganic?

Use 3 to 5 pounds of a 10-5-10 or 10-10-10 fertilizer per 1000 square feet in the perennial bed. Add leaves as mulch. In your vegetable bed, nutrients are important. Fertilize more heavily using a 10-10-10 fertilizer at the rate of 5 to 10 pounds per 1000 square feet.

For hanging baskets of annuals in a greenhouse, a slow-release fertilizer is best. Use a 20-10-20 liquid fertilizer following label directions. In general, organic fertilizers have a lower chemical analysis than inorganic ones, so you have to use more, according to David Tyznik, owner of Planter’s Palette, Winfield.

A healthy plant is dependent on its soil. A balanced soil is rich in beneficial microorganisms that improve the soil structure and supply necessary nutrients. Soilless potting mixes have no microorganisms. “Both organic and inorganic fertilizers work well, but those in soilless mixes need more fertilizer,” says Tyznik.


Siberian Iris

My Siberian iris ‘Gracilis’ plants have only one bloom per clump. I have five 3 to 5 year-old clumps that are 8 to 10 inches wide. They do not appear to be crowded. All are planted in a moist area. Why is there only one bloom per clump?

“Iris bloom is directly proportional to the amount of sun received,” proclaimed Chuck Simon, Hinsdale, past president of the Northern Illinois Iris Society, who grows 10,000 rhizomes of 1,000 to 1,500 iris varieties. Iris need 4 to 5 hours of sun, but full sun is best. Another cause of bloom failure could be iris borers, which eat mature fans and cause only minor increases in plant growth. Spray with Cygon 2E in spring when eggs of borers hatch in order to break their life cycle. When transplanting iris, make sure the roots remain moist. Grow them in moist but not wet soil. In the first year after planting, water them religiously. Once past that point, they are very hardy. Simon, a master iris judge, referred to the American Iris Society checklist for any special cultural conditions affecting bloom and discovered that this variety is very old. Iris siberica ‘Gracilis’ was introduced in 1927.


What plants do you predict will be best sellers this year? Why?

What plants do you predict will be best sellers this year? Why?

Bryon Angerman, nursery manager, Alsip Home & Garden, St. John, Ind. and Frankfort, Ill.

I believe these two compact hydrangeas will be hot plants this year. First is Invincibelle Wee White® hydrangea, a compact and reblooming white variety of ‘Annabelle’ hydrangea. Its dwarf habit of 18-24 inches and versatile adaptability to full-sun to part-shade planting locations will yield three to four months of continuous flowers on sturdy stems. It’s sure to become a staple in every landscape. Also look for Mini Mauvette hydrangea for similar habits with pinkish purple flowers.

Molly Hornbaker Blogg, nursery manager, Hornbaker Gardens, Princeton.

Hydrangea Little Quick Fire will be a best seller this year. It blooms early with pure white flowers turning to pink, then rose. Its more
compact size, at 4-5 feet and fits into most urban gardens better than most other panicle hydrangeas. Hosta ‘Autumn Frost’ is an attention grabbing plant with powder blue leaves and showy yellow margins. Last year’s Perennial of the Year, Asclepias tuberosa, should continue to be a big seller because of its gorgeous orange flowers and because it is a host for monarch caterpillars.

Jennifer Brennan,horticulture information specialist, manager of education, Chalet, Wilmette.

Being at a retail garden center and nursery, I get to hear customers’ requests and questions about plants for their gardens. Being on the board of the Perennial Plant Association for 6 years, I get to hear hybridizers and growers claims about the “BEST” plants. It is wonderful when the claims of the hybridizers and growers match the requests of the gardeners and designers. The other fact that is worth stating is that the plants are trialed much better than in the past, so there is proof from many areas of the country that the recommended plants will perform and survive.

The first plant that I expect to be a good seller is one that has been selected by the members of the Perennial Plant Association as the Perennial Plant of the Year for 2018. It is Allium ‘Millenium’. Allium ‘Millenium’ is one of the very best ornamental onions. Unlike spring-blooming Allium bulbs, this hybrid Allium blooms in mid to late summer with large large 2 inch rose-purple, globe-shaped flowers over shiny deep green strappy, grassy foliage. Mature plants have dozens of globes covering this perennial plant. Allium ‘Millenium’ attracts butterflies and bees love it as well, but deer and rabbits stay away. This Allium is good for winter hardiness Zones 5-9; prefers full sun to part shade and is 10-12 inches tall.

The
second plant is a flowering perennial Echinacea. It is Echinacea KISMET™ Raspberry and it is different due to sheer flower number and a fabulous habit. It blooms first year, early in the season, with large flowers and continues until a hard frost. It is a great plant! I saw it in trials in the Chicago area and in Colorado. It attracts butterflies and hummingbirds. It is a wonderful cut flower with a great fragrance. It is deer resistant. It is hardy from Zone 4 to zone 10. It forms an upright mound that is 16 inches tall by 24 inches wide, up to 18 inches in flower. It is a beautiful hot pink color that blooms June, July, August, September and October. And, it likes average well drained soil in full sun.

The third plant is a hybrid of a native grass. Native plants are one of the strongest trends in gardening these days. The natural beauty of native Blue Grama Grass is raised to a higher level in Bouteloua gracilis ‘Blonde Ambition’. Its allure includes an abundance of horizontal seed heads, which resemble elegant, petite flags. They emerge chartreuse and transform to blonde. These exquisite blooms hover above thin, blue-green, two-foot stems. ‘Blonde Ambition’ was named a 2011 Plant Select® Winner for its resistance to pests, exceptional performance in low water conditions, retail appeal, and long-lasting attractiveness in gardens and containers. It pops right back up after snowfall. Bouteloua gracilis‘ Blonde Ambition’ was discovered and introduced by David Salman of High Country Gardens. It is easily grown in average, dry to medium, well-drained soils in full sun. It tolerates a wide range of soils, except poorly-drained, wet ones. It is hardy from Zone 3 to Zone 10. It is a tufted, warm season, Missouri native grass noted for its distinctive arrangement of mosquito larvae-like seed spikes which hang from only one side of its flowering stems. It is native to prairies, plains, open rocky woodlands and along railroad tracks. It has narrow, bluish-gray leaf blades (to 1/4 inch wide) that typically form a dense clump growing 12-15 inches tall. Foliage turns golden brown in autumn, sometimes also developing interesting hues of orange and red. Inflorescences of blond colored flowers appear on arching stems above the foliage in early to mid-summer, typically bringing the total height of the clump to 20 inches tall.

All three of these should be at the top of the selling lists for the 2018.


Houseplants

I have houseplants outside that I will need to bring indoors. What is the lowest temperature at which I can leave them outside?

The rule of thumb is when night temperatures are in the 50s, it is time to bring your houseplants indoors, according to horticulturists at Pesche’s garden center, Des Plaines.

To avoid the shock of suddenly bringing plants into a hot dry environment, place them in a shaded area before the heat comes on in the house. Bring in sensitive tropicals such as hibiscus and anthuriums as soon as summer cools down.

Christmas cactus and cymbidium orchids can tolerate chillier temperatures and stay outdoors longer, but move them indoors before the thermometer drops to freezing, says Greg Stack, University of Illinois Extension Educator, Horticulture. Indoors, a cool 50-degree area such as an unheated sun porch will give them the short day situation they need to set flower buds. Stack keeps his Christmas cactus in a cool unused room where the lights aren’t turned on. His plant sets buds and blooms reliably every year, he reports. Christmas cactus buds will dry up in an overheated, dry room.


Types of Fruit Trees

I am going to be planting five dwarf fruit trees; two ‘Bartlett’ pears, one ‘Cresthaven’ peach, and two ‘Honeycrisp’ apples. Could you give me some feedback on them?

If you buy young container fruit trees, plant them very early in the spring to lessen transplanting shock (as soon as the soil can be worked and before the buds break). Plant the tree at the level it was in the pot, adding a layer of top mulch.

“Wrap the trunk in paper or plastic tree wrap to prevent deer and rabbit damage. Protect the trunk from voles with fine wire mesh at the base,” says Tim Norris, president of Spring Bluff nursery, Sugar Grove.

‘Bartlett’ pear is subject to fire blight and also needs a pollinator for good fruit production. ‘Patten’ and ‘Parker’ are two pear cultivars Norris recommends. Two different cultivars will give you better cross-pollination.

‘Honeycrisp’ apples are an excellent choice for this area. They grow up to 20 feet tall on semi-dwarf root stock. They can be pollinated by any member of the Malus family, including a nearby flowering crab tree.

‘Cresthaven’ peach, while hardy here, may not bear fruit, depending on how cold the winters are. When the temperature goes down to zero, ‘Cresthaven’ peach loses all its flower buds. Norris suggests growing ‘Reliance’ peach instead. It needs a long growing season. Last spring (2008) was a cool one and peaches did not bear much fruit. Peaches are not long-lived trees. By the time the tree is bearing fruit, you will need to start growing another tree.


Low Light House Plants

We have a skylight in the bathroom over our Jacuzzi tub with an area around the tub that is quite large. What plants can we grow there, and what care do they need? Can we grow orchids?

Use plants that grow in low light such as pothos, philodendron, peace lily (Spathiphyllum), Chinese evergreen (Aglaonema), any type of dracaena, and include lady palm (Rhapis) for height. It would be possible to grow moth orchids (Phalaenopsis).

“While the bathroom will give you good humidity, your plants must be watered thoroughly. The peace lily needs to be kept evenly moist. Feed monthly with an all-purpose houseplant fertilizer,” advises Elizabeth Hoffman, manager, West End Florist, Evanston.


Variegated Sedum

I have a large variegated sedum with pink flowers that I have had for years. I noticed that it has started to send up some all-green shoots. Why is it doing this and how can I keep my plant variegated?

All variegated plants contain a combination of green cells with chlorophyll and white tissue with no chlorophyll, which produces the green and white effect. Variegated plants are genetically unstable, so sometimes the tissues revert to all-green cells and send up solid green shoots from the base of the plant. Because these shoots contain more chlorophyll than the variegated tissue, they are more vigorous. Thus they can quickly overrun a plant, according to Hortech, a developer and grower of sedums.

Cut the green shoots off at the base of the plant as soon as you see them. It is possible you have induced vigorous growth by giving the plant too much high-nitrogen fertilizer, so it would be wise not to fertilize. It sometimes helps to divide your plant and then choose the most variegated stems for a new plant. Since your sedum, a cultivar of Sedum spectabile, is such a rapid grower, it will quickly become a new clump after division. Newer named cultivars are more genetically stable and do not have this problem.


Cucumbers

The foliage on our cucumber plants is starting to wither and turn yellow. They get plenty of water and I feed them regularly. What could be wrong?

“The plants may be getting too much water. They can tolerate fairly dry soil,” says Tim Norris, owner Spring Bluff Nursery, Sugar Grove. There are other possible causes for yellowing foliage as well. The cucumber beetle may have fed on the plants when they were small and transmitted bacterial wilt, which later plugs the vascular tissue. To prevent the beetle from feeding on young plants, use row covers until the plants get larger. A stressed plant is also open to attack by bacterial wilt.


Russian Sage

Our Russian sage (Perovskia) is full and bountiful but will not stay upright. Is there anything we can do? Is there a way to split some off when it has outgrown its space? Should it be trimmed back in fall or spring?

The normal growing habit of Russian sage is to open in the center, according to Tina Pansic, staff horticulturist at Chalet Nursery, Wilmette, who says this is a common complaint. Russian sage must be grown in full sun and can be supported by pea stakes (willow or dogwood branches) or commercial wire stakes. A new cultivar, ‘Little Spire’ is shorter and will stay upright. Your plant can be divided by breaking up the root system with a spade as the bottom stems get woody.Wait until spring to cut the plant to the ground. Plants that are cut back in autumn suffer more winterkill. Pansic cuts her perovskia halfway down in late summer to control the spreading, and then cuts it to the ground the following spring


White Pine Burn

I have two 20-year-old pine trees whose needles are turning brown on the west side of the plants. On the east side I have a compost pile.

I live in the St. Charles region and my soil is mostly clay. What is causing the browning? Should I get rid of the compost? How do I correct the damage?

Climate conditions could be the cause of the brown needles. There was strong west wind this past winter season, which caused winter burn. With last fall’s rain and winter snow cover, the soil never dried out. According to Todd Mohr, sales associate, Rich’s Foxwillow Pines Nursery, Woodstock, pines normally begin

to go dormant in late August. “We had a lot of burn on our evergreens which showed up over summer,” says Mohr.

Cut a sample of the branch and make sure the plant is alive. You can photograph your tree or take the sample to an arboretum or garden center for evaluation. The compost should not affect the trees unless you have a large pile that is prohibiting air circulation. Spread the compost loosely over the area.

White pine is a native Illinois tree. It may come back on its own. If not, have a tree professional diagnose it.


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